Figure 1. Risk of SARS-CoV-2 from asymptomatic individuals from Jones Nicholas R, Qureshi Zeshan U, Temple Robert J, Larwood Jessica P J, Greenhalgh Trisha, Bourouiba Lydia et al. Two metres or one: What is the evidence for physical distancing in COVID-19? BMJ 2020; 370: m3223.
COVID-19 Aerosol & Ventilation Guidance
1. Collaboration of Aerosol Scientists (Marr, Miller, Prather, Haas, Bahnfleth, Corsi, Tang, Herrmann, Jimenez). FAQS on Protecting Yourself from Aerosols. 2020.
An extensive general overview of aerosols transmission and advice to reduce COVID-19 risks in daily navigation, including dining out, playing music, dental offices, among other scenarios. From a collaboration of leading aerosol experts.
2. For Health, Harvard Chan School of Public Health, Guide to Measure Ventilation in Schools, The Healthy Buildings Program. Aug 2020.
Detailed step by step methodology to test ventilation capacity and recommendations for air change per hour targets to control COVID-19 spread in school settings. Applicable to any indoor building spaces.
3. Yale School of Public Health, Public Health Guidance for Reopening Schools for 2020, Ventilation Key to Reducing Risk.
Guidance for multiple mechanical & natural ventilation scenarios for school re-opening but applicable to any indoor building spaces.
4. ASHRAE. Guidance for re-opening of schools. 20 Aug 2020.
5. ASHRAE. Guidance for polling place HVAC systems. 19 Aug 2020.
6. ASHRAE. Building Readiness Guide. 19 Aug 2020.
1. Wölfel, R., Corman, V. M., Guggemos, W., Seilmaier, M., Zange, S., Müller, M. A., ... & Hoelscher, M. (2020). Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature, 581(7809), 465-469.
2. Kimball, A., Hatfield, K. M., Arons, M., James, A., Taylor, J., Spicer, K., ... & Bell, J. M. (2020). Asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in residents of a long-term care skilled nursing facility—King County, Washington, March 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(13), 377.
3. Lu, J., Gu, J., Li, K., Xu, C., Su, W., Lai, Z., ... & Yang, Z. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak associated with air conditioning in restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020. Emerging infectious diseases, 26(7).
4. Qian, Miao, Liu Qian, H., Miao, T., Li, L. I. U., Zheng, X., Luo, D., & Li, Y. (2020). Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv.
5. Liu, Ning, Chen Liu, Y., Ning, Z., Chen, Y., Guo, M., Liu, Y., Gali, N. K., ... & Liu, X. (2020). Aerodynamic characteristics and RNA concentration of SARS-CoV-2 aerosol in Wuhan hospitals during COVID-19 outbreak. BioRxiv.
6. Nishiura, Oshitani et al., Nishiura, H., Oshitani, H., Kobayashi, T., Saito, T., Sunagawa, T., Matsui, T., ... & Suzuki, M. (2020). Closed environments facilitate secondary transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). medRxiv.
7. Li, Y., Leung, G. M., Tang, J. W., Yang, X., Chao, C. Y., Lin, J. Z., ... & Sleigh, A. C. (2007). Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment-a multidisciplinary systematic review. Indoor air, 17(1), 2-18.
8. Luongo, J. C., Fennelly, K. P., Keen, J. A., Zhai, Z. J., Jones, B. W., & Miller, S. L. (2016). Role of mechanical ventilation in the airborne transmission of infectious agents in buildings. Indoor air, 26(5), 666-678.
9. Lygizos, M., Shenoi, S. V., Brooks, R. P., Bhushan, A., Brust, J. C., Zelterman, D., ... & Friedland, G. H. (2013). Natural ventilation reduces high TB transmission risk in traditional homes in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC infectious diseases, 13(1), 300.
10. Andrews, J. R., Morrow, C., & Wood, R. (2013). Modeling the role of public transportation in sustaining tuberculosis transmission in South Africa. American journal of epidemiology, 177(6), 556-561.
11. Escombe, A. R., Oeser, C. C., Gilman, R. H., Navincopa, M., Ticona, E., Pan, W., ... & Friedland, J. S. (2007). Natural ventilation for the prevention of airborne contagion. PLoS Med
12. Jiang, S., Huang, L., Chen, X., Wang, J., Wu, W., Yin, S., ... & Li, J. (2003). Ventilation of wards and nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome among healthcare workers. Chinese Medical Journal, 116(9), 1293-1297.
13. Chen, Ling, Lu Chen, W. Q., Ling, W. H., Lu, C. Y., Hao, Y. T., Lin, Z. N., Ling, L., ... & Yan, G. M. (2009). Which preventive measures might protect health care workers from SARS?. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 81.
14. Menzies, D., Fanning, A., Yuan, L., & FitzGerald, J. M. (2000). Hospital ventilation and risk for tuberculosis infection in Canadian health care workers. Annals of Internal Medicine, 133(10), 779-789.
15. Smieszek, Lazzari & Salathe Smieszek, T., Lazzari, G., & Salathé, M. (2019). Assessing the dynamics and control of droplet-and aerosol-transmitted influenza using an indoor positioning system. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-10.
16. Chen, C., Zhao, B., Cui, W., Dong, L., An, N., & Ouyang, X. (2010). The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7(48), 1105-1118.
17. Welch, D., Buonanno, M., Grilj, V., Shuryak, I., Crickmore, C., Bigelow, A. W., ... & Brenner, D. J. (2018). Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 1-7.
18. Qian, H., & Zheng, X. (2018). Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio-aerosols in buildings. Journal of thoracic disease, 10(Suppl 19), S2295.
19. Harriman, L., Stephens, B., & Brennan, T. (2019). New Guidance for Residential Air Cleaners. ASHRAE Journal, 61(9), 14-23.
20. Kurnitski J, Boerstra A, Franchimon F, Mazzarella L, Hogeling J, Hovorka F, et al. REHVA COVID-19 guidance document , March 17 , 2020, How to operate and use building services in order to prevent the spread of the. 2020;2020(i): 1–6.
21. Zhang, R., Li, Y., Zhang, A. L., Wang, Y., & Molina, M. J. (2020). Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.